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پرسش الكتريكي شماره 16- خازن های الکترولیت

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  • #234

      چرا خازن های الکترولیت پلاریته دارند؟

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    • #1474
      يك دوست

        An electrolytic capacitor is a type of capacitor that uses an ionic conducting liquid as one of its plates. Typically with a larger capacitance per unit volume than other types, they are valuable in relatively high-current and low-frequency electrical circuits. This is especially the case in power-supply filters, where they store charge needed to moderate output voltage and current fluctuations, in rectifier output. They are also widely used as coupling capacitors in circuits where AC should be conducted but DC should not. Electrolytic capacitors can have a very high capacitance, allowing filters made with them to have very low corner frequencies. Aluminum electrolytic capacitors are constructed from two conducting aluminum foils, one of which is coated with an insulating oxide layer, and a paper spacer soaked in electrolyte. The foil insulated by the oxide layer is the anode while the liquid electrolyte and the second foil act as cathode. This stack is then rolled up, fitted with pin connectors and placed in a cylindrical aluminium casing. The two most popular geometries are axial leads coming from the center of each circular face of the cylinder, or two radial leads or lugs on one of the circular faces. In aluminum electrolytic capacitors, the layer of insulating aluminum oxide on the surface of the aluminum plate acts as the dielectric, and it is the thinness of this layer that allows for a relatively high capacitance in a small volume. The aluminum oxide layer can withstand an electric field strength of the order of 109 volts per meter. The combination of high capacitance and high voltage result in high energy density. Unlike most capacitors, electrolytic capacitors have a voltage polarity requirement. The correct polarity is indicated on the packaging by a stripe with minus signs and possibly arrowheads, denoting the adjacent terminal that should have lower electrical potential (i.e. negative terminal). Also the negative terminal lead of radial electrolytic capacitors are shorter. This is necessary because a reverse-bias voltage above 1 to 1.5 V will destroy the center layer of dielectric material via electrochemical reduction ( redox reactions). Without the dielectric material the capacitor will short circuit, and if the short circuit current is excessive, then the electrolyte will heat up and either leak or cause the capacitor to explode. Redox (shorthand for reduction-oxidation reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. This can be either a simple redox process such as the oxidation of carbon to yield carbon dioxide or the reduction of carbon by hydrogen to yield methane (CH4), or it can be a complex process such as the oxidation of sugar in the human body through a series of very complex electron transfer processes. The term redox comes from the two concepts of reduction and oxidation. It can be explained in simple terms:

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